Understanding the Self to Embrace the Customer’s Journey
In the bustling marketplace of today, where brands vie for attention, it is the one that knows itself that stands apart. Let’s follow the story of a marketer named Liam. He recognises that to truly serve his audience, he must first understand his own brand’s identity—its strengths, weaknesses, and unique place in the market. This self-knowledge becomes Liam’s compass, guiding him to tailor his approach to meet his customers where they are, with all their varied preferences and behaviours.
Erik Erikson, a developmental psychologist, emphasised the importance of self-knowledge throughout the eight stages of human development that he identified. He proposed a theory of psychosocial development that delineates eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage, the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds upon the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future. Here are the eight stages:
Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy): This stage covers the period from birth to approximately 18 months. A child develops a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Early Childhood): From 2 to 4 years, the child’s energy is directed toward the development of physical skills, including walking, grasping, and rectal sphincter control. The child learns control but may develop shame and doubt if not handled well.
Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschool Age): Around age 4-5, children assert themselves more frequently. They begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others. If initiative is dismissed or discouraged, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt.
Industry vs. Inferiority (School Age): From age 5-12, children are eager to learn and accomplish more complex skills: reading, writing, telling time. They also begin to form a sense of pride in their accomplishments. If this initiative is not encouraged, or if it’s restricted by parents or teachers, the child begins to feel inferior, doubting his own abilities and therefore may not reach his potential.
Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence): In adolescence (ages 12-18), children face the task of identity formation. They become more independent and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc. The individual wants to belong to a society and fit in.
Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood): This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships. Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step will form relationships that are committed and secure.
Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood): During middle age, adults establish careers, settle down within relationships, begin families, and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. They give back to society through raising children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organisations. By failing to achieve these objectives, individuals become stagnant and feel unproductive.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood): As older adults, some people look back with a sense of integrity, contentment, and fulfilment, having led a meaningful life and valuable contribution to society. Others may have a sense of despair during this stage, reflecting upon their experiences and failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering “What’s the point of it all?”
You can explore Erik Erikson’s concepts further in an article on Verywell Mind that discusses identity formation and the influence of self-knowledge on how we perceive others. Erik Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial development
Segmented Marketing Campaigns: Understanding that not all customers are alike, Spotify uses data-driven insights to create personalised playlists, showing patience and appreciation for the individual’s music journey.
Customer Service Excellence: Zappos isn’t just an online retailer; it’s a service company that happens to sell shoes. Their deep understanding of their service-first identity allows them to show exceptional patience and care for customer experiences.
Brand Community Engagement: Harley-Davidson knows its soul as a brand is intertwined with the freedom of the open road, which allows them to connect and be patient with the lifestyle and pace of their riders’ community.
“Identity: Youth and Crisis” by Erik Erikson – Offering insight into the formation of personal identity, this book provides a framework for understanding brand identity in marketing.
“Permission Marketing” by Seth Godin – Godin’s approach to marketing as a respectful and patient invitation to consumers echoes Erikson’s principles of self-knowledge and patience.
“Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die” by Chip Heath and Dan Heath – This book, while not directly related to Erikson’s work, emphasises the importance of understanding one’s core message, which is key to patient and effective communication.